Thursday, May 12, 2016

10 Factors Affecting Consumer Expectations

Many believe that the expectations of the customers determine the quality of products (goods and services) as well as customer satisfaction. This customer expectations behind why the two companies rated berneda by customers. In the context of customer satisfaction, generally expect a pelangga confidence in what they will receive. According to Zeithaml, et al. (1993) there bebeapa factors that affect customer expectations of them

1.Enduring Service Intensifiers
These factors are factors that are stable and encourage peningktan sensitivity to customers for goods or services. These factors can include others and personal philosophy tehadap services. A customer is entitled to a good waiter anyway if another customer got good service by providers. The philosophy of the individual when a bank customer about how the delivery of services that really will determine her hopes for the bank.

2.Personal Needs
Someone needs that are considered fundamental for kesejagteraannya also considered a determining aka expectations. These needs include physical, social and psychological.

3.Transitory Service Intensifier
Factors which are individual factors that are temporary or short-term increases the sensitivity of customers to the service. The following factors:

In emergency situations when customers memembutuhkan services and the company wants to help him. For example, when we are in a traffic accident, and we want car insurance to help us in repairing the damage suffered by our cars.
Last services received or consumed by the customer can be a good or bad benchmark services to be received next.
4.Percevied Service Alternatives
A customer's perception or thought to the level or degree of service similar companies. Such customers buy at the supermarket A, surely he would have the perception that in buying at the supermarket B has different services whether it is better or worse. If consumerism nmempunyai many alternatives, then the expectation of the services likely to be.

5.Self-Perceived Service Rules
This factor is the customer perception of keterlibatanya in affecting the service or services that will be received. If the consumer is involved in the provision of services and the services it receives less good then the customer will not entirely blame the service provider.

Factors 6.Situational
These factors consist of any kemungkianan that can affect the performance of services, beyond the control or control providers. As an example of service at the bank, at a certain moment the bank will be met by the customer so that the customer will be queued and waiting in a long time. This will result in reduced levels of pelanyanan minimum that will be received, but this is only temporary because this time is also not one of the service providers which in this case is the bank.

7.Explicit Service Promises
This factor is a promise or statement (personal and non-personala) of the company to the consumer. This can be in the form of advertising, personal selling, agreement, or communication with the employees of the company.

8.Implicit Service Promises
This factor concerns the instructions relating to services, which provide a conclusion to the customer about the service and how it should be provided. Instructions provide a description of this service include the price and supporting equipment services.

9.Worth of Mouth (recommendation or advice of others)
Dikemukan an opinion whether personal or non-personal delivered by someone other than the organization or company to the customer. These factors are usually more readily accepted because people who deliver it are people who can be trusted as experts, friends, neighbors, and relatives. Besides, this factor was quickly accepted because of the difficulty to evaluate the customer service of goods or services that have not been used.

10.Past Experience
As in the sense of its past Indonesian experiene a past experience that can include things that have been studied customers of the services provided to it in the past.

Well that was 10 factors that can influence the expectations of consumers towards your products. With these factors are expected to know 10 you can maintain and even improve the performance to match the high expectations of your customers. See you again in the next article.

How to Model Customer Satisfaction?

Now these theories and models of satisfaction is very varied, and also when it is still evolving so that there is no consensus regarding the models and theories are most effective. Theory and this model will allow us to read the level of customer satisfaction Although there is still no agreement on the model and the theory of the most effective yet each company has used models and theories are considered the best. As for some of the concepts or models that are often found or used (Pawwitra, 1993), namely:cara membuat email

 1.Teori Microeconomics In economic theory, the basis of which will be used by a consumer in the allocation of scarce resources is where the comparison between kegunaaan marginal and price of each product will be the same. In a market that is not terdiferensi, all consumers will pay the same price, and individuals who are willing to pay higher or expensive would benefit from subjective called consumer surplus. The consumer surplus is essentially the difference in consumer satisfaction derived when eating or using the item with the price or payment that must be paid to obtain such goods. It can be concluded that the greater the consumer surplus, the greater the customer satisfaction as well as vice versa. However,

there are still fundamental differences between the concept of consumer surplus with customer satisfaction, because the concept of consumer surplus only consider the quantity and price, without memepertimbangkan some asapek such as quality, service, packaging and other products consumed by the customer or jasayang. With some of these considerations the concept of consumer surplus in micro theory still can not be said to be a concept of customer satisfaction. 2.Perspektif Psychology of Customer Satisfaction As for the psychological perspective there are two models keuapasan customers, namely: cognitive a.Model As

sessment of this model is based on customer penelaian to the difference between a set of combination of attributes that are ideally suited for the individual and his perception of the actual combination of attributes. So it can be concluded that this cognitive model ideks kepusan measured by the differential between the customer who wants to be realized by customers into buying a product in the form of goods or services and what actually itawarkan by customers. In this model of customer satisfaction can be achieved in two main ways. First, change according to the company's offerings ideal. Second, to convince the customers or consumers that the ideal was not necessarily correspond to reality. As for the cognitive model is quite common models

, namely:peluang usaha The Expectancy Disconfirmation Model Based on this model, customers' satisfaction is influenced by two variables kogntif, namely prepurchase expectations) is the belief that the anticipated performance of a product or service and disconfirmation is peebadaan between expectations prior to purchase and after purchase. There were three votes in this model, the first performance of the product exceeds the expected both product performance equal to our expectations, the third worse product performance or lower than expected. equity Theory In this theory one's satisfaction is measured by the ratio of the results obtained compared with the inputs used, perceived fair or unfair. Or it can be said that people would mersasa satisfied if the benefits to the same products with the benefits gained by others.

 Attribution Theory In this theory terrdapat 3 causes that will make the success or failure of an outcome, so we can say it memuasakan a purchase or not. The three causes are: Stability Locus of casuality controllability b.Model Affective Model affective states that the assessment of the customer or consumer of the goods or services are not solely based on calculations rasioanal, but also based on the subjective needs, aspirations and experiences. The focus of this affective models put emphasis on the level of aspiration, learning behaviors, emotions, specific feelings, moods. The presence of this focus aims to be able to describe and measure the level of satisfaction in a time series.bisnis rumahan

3.Konsep Customer Satisfaction in TQM Perspective Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach in running the business or businesses that are trying to maximize the competitiveness of companies melalaui the continuous improvement of the products, services, tbs, processes and environment. In this TQM is a quality improvement strategy and oriented to customer satisfaction by involving all members of the company. The main basis of the TQM approach is the quality of the organization is determined by the customer. Well that was some concept or model of customer satisfaction that can be applied. May be useful and I'll see in the next article.

Ways to Measure Customer Satisfaction

Monitoring and measurement of this satisfaction is very important for a company, this can memeberikan feedback and input for development purposes and as an implementation strategy to increase customer satisfaction. Because customer satisfaction has now become a top priority for companies that want to win a business competition.

In part of this article will discuss a few different methods and techniques to measure customer satisfaction.usaha rumahan 1.Metode Customer Satisfaction Measurement According to Kotler, et al., (1996) there are four methods for measuring customer satisfaction. The method used to measure the level of customer satisfaction with a product, namely: a. The system of complaints and suggestions Each organisanasi that has orinetasi on the customer needs to provide the widest opportunity to customers to submit suggestions, opinions and complaints they terdahap our products.

As for the media that can be used to accommodate the buyer's complaints and suggestions may be a suggestion box that can be placed at strategic places, card suggestions that can be charged directly or sent by post, or through your phone line bebes pulse. Information obtained from these suggestions and complaints can be made of new ideas and enter valuable for the company, so the company will be in action with a quick response and to overcome the problems that exist.

But this method is passive, because we did not get a complete picture of customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction, while not all dissatisfied customers submit complaints about our products. Because most customers are not satisfied they immediately chose to leave the products are considered not match their expectations and move the product to another. So it is difficult to get good advice from this method.

Moreover, if the company does not specifies the reciprocal and follow-up to those who have given ideas to other companies meraka surely be disappointed and may decide to move the product. In this method the need for the activity of the company to memeberikan appreciation of those who have contributed their ideas.Manajemen

 b. Ghost Shopping Ghost Shopping is one way to gain an overview of customer satisfaction by employing a few people (ghost shopper) to become or act as a buyer or potential customers the company's products and the company's competitors. Then they give you a report on the strengths and weaknesses of competitors' products, and Performance Management based on the experience they purchase and consume these products.

In addition ghost shopper has a duty to observe how the company and its competitors to serve the demand of customers, answering customer questions and respond to any customer complaints. After that the company will evaluate all existing findings and immediately fix it. Usually this role is carried out ghost shopping manager unnoticed by his subordinates so that the manager can observe for themselves how karyawanya face of the consumer, so that he can evaluate the performance of the employee.

 c. Lost Customer Analysis In this method the company should call the customer who has ceased to be a buyer or supplier who have moved in order to understand why these customers are moving or stopped, and in order to take policy or further refinement. By doing so the company can find the right solution so that these customers to buy products from our company again.Peluang Bisnis

 d. Customer Satisfaction Survey Has been much research on customer satisfaction surveys conducted by penelitaian, either by mail, telephone or personal interview. Through a survey the company will determine the response and feedback directly from the customers and give good marks to the customer that the company is always memperhatian customers. It also provides advantages for companies to understand what is cool by pelanggannnya.

 2. Customer Satisfaction Measurement Techniques We've mentioned before that the survey method is the best method digunaan in customer satisfaction measurement. The technique can be used to measure the level of customer kepuaan, namely: Respondents or customers were questioned about the large sebarapa their expectations for a particular product and how great they feel after using the product.

Customers are asked to write down the problems encountered related to the company's offer and also asked untukmenuliskan perbaiaan-improvement against their advice. Respondents are expected to rank the elements of the offer according to the degree of interest elenmen and how well the company is working on each of these elements.

This measurement dsapat done directly with questions such as "how satisfied are you with the services PT Rocket Management on the following scale: very dissatisfied, dissatisfied, satisfied, very satisfied".cara membuat facebook Because of the current measurement technique is still ongoing satisfaction megalami developments, this mengakibatakan no aggreement on how to measure the level of customer satisfaction. Therefore, artifacts variety of measurement techniques good level of customer satisfaction from the simple to the very complex.

Just how the needs and accuracy that will be needed by companies to measure customer satisfaction. The measurement technique itself can use statistical methods including regression analysis, correlation, ANOVA, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, factorial analysis, and conjoint analysis. That was the article about the different ways of telling measure customer satisfaction daat hopefully helpful, see you in the next article, thanks.

2 Effective Strategies to Improve Customer Satisfaction

In general, the company implemented a business strategy using a combination between strategic offensive and defensive strategies. Offensive strategy itself is intended to obtain or acquire new customers. With this strategy the company hopes to mineningkatkan market share, sales and number of customers.kerja online While this defensive strategy used to reduce customer exit and beralaihnya customers to use other products.

This strategy aims to minimize customer turnover and maximize customer retention by protecting products and markets (customers) of perusahaa competitors. In penilitian that many do have a market share strategy hbungan very eret with customer satisfaction. Both can increase the profit of a company, but there are perbeddaan between them. Where the reach and increase their own market share was an offensive strategy.

Sdangkan to customer satisfaction and to build obstacle diversion merupaka defensive strategy. Here perbadaan both when presented in the table Aspect Market share Customer satisfaction Use Used on a market with low growth or have experienced saturation Used on a market whose growth rate is low or has been saturated types of strategies offensive defensive point of convergence Competition Customer Measuring success The market share relative to the competition Customer retention rate behavioral objectives The transfer of the buyer kesetian buyers As for the defensive strategies menjdi divided into two, namely the obstacles diversion (switching barriers) and customer satisfaction. Here is an explanation of the two sections:

 1. Transfer of Strategy Formation Obstacles In this staretegi rintangn companies should establish a diversion, so when customers will switch suppliers feel the loss, Mersa reluctant, or will spend a greater cost than if we were supplying. This diversion obstacles can include the search costs, transaction costs, pbelajar or understanding, pieces for regular customers, and cognitive efforts.kerja sampingan Can also be a costly exercise, in addition to employees, the capital cost for changes and additional costs required to complement the new perelatan. Kesemuannya be achieved if the company can make and menjalain harmonious relationship, intimate and mutual benefit and pelanggannnya anatara company.

 2. Customer Satisfaction Strategy This Strategy will make the company's competitors have to work hard and spend more in order to seize the company's customers suatau. Things to note that customer satisfaction is a strategy in the long term that requires commitment, both in terms of resources or DAA mausianya. The strategies that can dipaduan to achieve and enhance customer satisfaction. a. Steamy marketing strategy Relationship Marketing, yaiu strategy diamana exchange transaction between sellers and buyers of sustainable, does not end the account after a transaction or sale is completed.

Denagan other words, that occurs kemuitraan with consumers continuously resulting in loyalty or customer loyalty so menimbulakan repeat business. However, there were bullet diperhatiakan that impact customer satisfaction to loyalty and repeat purchases from customers that vary untu each company. Loyal customers do not necessarily feel satisfaction, but instead of satisfied customers tend to have loyalty to a product.

As one of the variants of this relationship is the Frequency Marketing, which seuatu weeks to maintain the business, increase the HSIL of the best customers, by way menjalain long-term relationship and interactive value added services.manajemen keuangan b. Cutomer service superior strategy, a strategy that offers the captors were better than the company's competitors. In this case memebutuhkan substantial funds, human resources capacity, and great effort in order to create superior waitress But often companies offer better srvice cutomer will give you a higher price on the product. However perusahaa will gain considerable benefits from a better servant, in the form of enterprise level rapid and substantial profit.

 c. Guarentees uncondinental strategy, in this stretagi memeberikan company is committed to customer satisfaction which will be realtionship dynamism nati improvement of product quality and company performance, or JSA. And this also can motivate employees to improve their performance levels than ever before. d. Strategy handling complaints efficiently. In this case penangana complaints against dissatisfied customers will be giving out chances of such customers become dissatisfied with the company's products and can bahakan menjdi customers who are loyal to the company.

The involvement of top management in the handle or respond to a complaint can also memberrikan positive impact.strategi pemasaran These customers are more pleased disebakan deal with orwang who have the authority or power to make decisions and pemacahan their problems. And also the customers feel that the company pay attention to complaints meraka and willing to improve its shortcomings. e. The strategy for improving the performance of the company, in this case includes a variety of efforts such as malakukan monitoring and measuring customer satisfaction continuously, memeberikan training of management and employees of the public relations and salesmanship. f. Applying Quality Function Deployment (QFD), is a practice for membuata a process as a response to customer needs.

What Is a Market?

The term of this market contains a lot of sense, to mean anyone meeting place for sellers and buyers, Aatu titawarkan services for sale, and transfer of ownership occurs. And some who interpret the market is sutau request made by a group of oran in the form of potential buyers of the goods or services.

Basically, the market is a place or places where there are potential buyers and sellers with products that are ready to be on offer to the buyer. However, the above notions are still very general nature, whereas when we define the market more specifically that the market consists of all potential customers who have a need for services or products that may be able or willing to malakukan exchange process in order to meet those needs.

With such a large market kecinya affected by how banayak of people with who have needs, have the resources in NESS others and are willing to offer these resources to be exchanged in order to meet their needs. As discussed in a previous article the market is divided into two kinds, namely end-consumer market and organizational market (business market). End consumer market made up of individuals and households tujaun of purchasing products or services used for personal needs or for direct consumption.

This consumer market behavior can be influenced by several factors, such as cultural, social, personal, and psychological. With these factors will be giving out instructions on how your can reach and serve customers better and effective. By doing so the company can benefit in the form of material and loyal customers or loyal to the company's products.contoh laporan keuangan Before the company plans a marketing progarm, perusahaann need mengethui who target consumers, and how their decision process.

By doing so the company can make products that match consumer target and can also save costs. Therefore sanagt market analysis is required to determine the role of each person in influencing decision-making, their buying criteria, and their influence upon purchase. This is very important because it has implications and designing products, define the communication messages and mangalokasikan budget for promotion (advertising).

 While the market for organisasioanal commonly called the producer market because buyers are producers who will rework the purchased product. This market consists of organizations, industrial users, traders, government, and non-profit institutions that tujaun purchase for processed again until the final product is ready to be resold, leased, was supplied to other parties, either for profit (profit) or to the welfare of its members. The characteristics that distinguish business markets invitation consumer market, such as:pengertian akuntansi

 Buyer (consumer) market organizational less than the consumer market, because buyers usually only organizational market companies or specific industries. Volume (number) purchase larger / more than the consumer market, because the product is processed and sold dbeli the longer it would require a large number. Anatar supplier relationships with customers more familiar and close Buyers (consumers) are more concentrated geographically, for example in the industrial city, shopping in puast crowd.

Demand is likely to be a derived demand (derived demand) Permintaanya inelastic (the demand is not influenced by changes in the price), because consumers (companies or industries) any price certainly right to buy such products to make the products that are sold again. His request volatile iron and on new factories and equipment The purchase is done professionally by the biological purchasing agent who has been trained, the company will send people here who are experienced and competent to lobby and bargain products to be purchased to meet the needs of the company.siklus akuntansi People that affect purchasing decisions

Papada business market tends more than the consumer market Any purchase made directly from the factory, and not infrequently sales are reciprocal exchanges. Let's say the car companies want to buy tires, then the purchase will be made directly in the plant and the number of purchase much that it can not be done at the dealer or tire shop.