Thursday, May 12, 2016

10 Factors Affecting Consumer Expectations

Many believe that the expectations of the customers determine the quality of products (goods and services) as well as customer satisfaction. This customer expectations behind why the two companies rated berneda by customers. In the context of customer satisfaction, generally expect a pelangga confidence in what they will receive. According to Zeithaml, et al. (1993) there bebeapa factors that affect customer expectations of them

1.Enduring Service Intensifiers
These factors are factors that are stable and encourage peningktan sensitivity to customers for goods or services. These factors can include others and personal philosophy tehadap services. A customer is entitled to a good waiter anyway if another customer got good service by providers. The philosophy of the individual when a bank customer about how the delivery of services that really will determine her hopes for the bank.

2.Personal Needs
Someone needs that are considered fundamental for kesejagteraannya also considered a determining aka expectations. These needs include physical, social and psychological.

3.Transitory Service Intensifier
Factors which are individual factors that are temporary or short-term increases the sensitivity of customers to the service. The following factors:

In emergency situations when customers memembutuhkan services and the company wants to help him. For example, when we are in a traffic accident, and we want car insurance to help us in repairing the damage suffered by our cars.
Last services received or consumed by the customer can be a good or bad benchmark services to be received next.
4.Percevied Service Alternatives
A customer's perception or thought to the level or degree of service similar companies. Such customers buy at the supermarket A, surely he would have the perception that in buying at the supermarket B has different services whether it is better or worse. If consumerism nmempunyai many alternatives, then the expectation of the services likely to be.

5.Self-Perceived Service Rules
This factor is the customer perception of keterlibatanya in affecting the service or services that will be received. If the consumer is involved in the provision of services and the services it receives less good then the customer will not entirely blame the service provider.

Factors 6.Situational
These factors consist of any kemungkianan that can affect the performance of services, beyond the control or control providers. As an example of service at the bank, at a certain moment the bank will be met by the customer so that the customer will be queued and waiting in a long time. This will result in reduced levels of pelanyanan minimum that will be received, but this is only temporary because this time is also not one of the service providers which in this case is the bank.

7.Explicit Service Promises
This factor is a promise or statement (personal and non-personala) of the company to the consumer. This can be in the form of advertising, personal selling, agreement, or communication with the employees of the company.

8.Implicit Service Promises
This factor concerns the instructions relating to services, which provide a conclusion to the customer about the service and how it should be provided. Instructions provide a description of this service include the price and supporting equipment services.

9.Worth of Mouth (recommendation or advice of others)
Dikemukan an opinion whether personal or non-personal delivered by someone other than the organization or company to the customer. These factors are usually more readily accepted because people who deliver it are people who can be trusted as experts, friends, neighbors, and relatives. Besides, this factor was quickly accepted because of the difficulty to evaluate the customer service of goods or services that have not been used.

10.Past Experience
As in the sense of its past Indonesian experiene a past experience that can include things that have been studied customers of the services provided to it in the past.

Well that was 10 factors that can influence the expectations of consumers towards your products. With these factors are expected to know 10 you can maintain and even improve the performance to match the high expectations of your customers. See you again in the next article.

How to Model Customer Satisfaction?

Now these theories and models of satisfaction is very varied, and also when it is still evolving so that there is no consensus regarding the models and theories are most effective. Theory and this model will allow us to read the level of customer satisfaction Although there is still no agreement on the model and the theory of the most effective yet each company has used models and theories are considered the best. As for some of the concepts or models that are often found or used (Pawwitra, 1993), namely:cara membuat email

 1.Teori Microeconomics In economic theory, the basis of which will be used by a consumer in the allocation of scarce resources is where the comparison between kegunaaan marginal and price of each product will be the same. In a market that is not terdiferensi, all consumers will pay the same price, and individuals who are willing to pay higher or expensive would benefit from subjective called consumer surplus. The consumer surplus is essentially the difference in consumer satisfaction derived when eating or using the item with the price or payment that must be paid to obtain such goods. It can be concluded that the greater the consumer surplus, the greater the customer satisfaction as well as vice versa. However,

there are still fundamental differences between the concept of consumer surplus with customer satisfaction, because the concept of consumer surplus only consider the quantity and price, without memepertimbangkan some asapek such as quality, service, packaging and other products consumed by the customer or jasayang. With some of these considerations the concept of consumer surplus in micro theory still can not be said to be a concept of customer satisfaction. 2.Perspektif Psychology of Customer Satisfaction As for the psychological perspective there are two models keuapasan customers, namely: cognitive a.Model As

sessment of this model is based on customer penelaian to the difference between a set of combination of attributes that are ideally suited for the individual and his perception of the actual combination of attributes. So it can be concluded that this cognitive model ideks kepusan measured by the differential between the customer who wants to be realized by customers into buying a product in the form of goods or services and what actually itawarkan by customers. In this model of customer satisfaction can be achieved in two main ways. First, change according to the company's offerings ideal. Second, to convince the customers or consumers that the ideal was not necessarily correspond to reality. As for the cognitive model is quite common models

, namely:peluang usaha The Expectancy Disconfirmation Model Based on this model, customers' satisfaction is influenced by two variables kogntif, namely prepurchase expectations) is the belief that the anticipated performance of a product or service and disconfirmation is peebadaan between expectations prior to purchase and after purchase. There were three votes in this model, the first performance of the product exceeds the expected both product performance equal to our expectations, the third worse product performance or lower than expected. equity Theory In this theory one's satisfaction is measured by the ratio of the results obtained compared with the inputs used, perceived fair or unfair. Or it can be said that people would mersasa satisfied if the benefits to the same products with the benefits gained by others.

 Attribution Theory In this theory terrdapat 3 causes that will make the success or failure of an outcome, so we can say it memuasakan a purchase or not. The three causes are: Stability Locus of casuality controllability b.Model Affective Model affective states that the assessment of the customer or consumer of the goods or services are not solely based on calculations rasioanal, but also based on the subjective needs, aspirations and experiences. The focus of this affective models put emphasis on the level of aspiration, learning behaviors, emotions, specific feelings, moods. The presence of this focus aims to be able to describe and measure the level of satisfaction in a time series.bisnis rumahan

3.Konsep Customer Satisfaction in TQM Perspective Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach in running the business or businesses that are trying to maximize the competitiveness of companies melalaui the continuous improvement of the products, services, tbs, processes and environment. In this TQM is a quality improvement strategy and oriented to customer satisfaction by involving all members of the company. The main basis of the TQM approach is the quality of the organization is determined by the customer. Well that was some concept or model of customer satisfaction that can be applied. May be useful and I'll see in the next article.

Ways to Measure Customer Satisfaction

Monitoring and measurement of this satisfaction is very important for a company, this can memeberikan feedback and input for development purposes and as an implementation strategy to increase customer satisfaction. Because customer satisfaction has now become a top priority for companies that want to win a business competition.

In part of this article will discuss a few different methods and techniques to measure customer satisfaction.usaha rumahan 1.Metode Customer Satisfaction Measurement According to Kotler, et al., (1996) there are four methods for measuring customer satisfaction. The method used to measure the level of customer satisfaction with a product, namely: a. The system of complaints and suggestions Each organisanasi that has orinetasi on the customer needs to provide the widest opportunity to customers to submit suggestions, opinions and complaints they terdahap our products.

As for the media that can be used to accommodate the buyer's complaints and suggestions may be a suggestion box that can be placed at strategic places, card suggestions that can be charged directly or sent by post, or through your phone line bebes pulse. Information obtained from these suggestions and complaints can be made of new ideas and enter valuable for the company, so the company will be in action with a quick response and to overcome the problems that exist.

But this method is passive, because we did not get a complete picture of customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction, while not all dissatisfied customers submit complaints about our products. Because most customers are not satisfied they immediately chose to leave the products are considered not match their expectations and move the product to another. So it is difficult to get good advice from this method.

Moreover, if the company does not specifies the reciprocal and follow-up to those who have given ideas to other companies meraka surely be disappointed and may decide to move the product. In this method the need for the activity of the company to memeberikan appreciation of those who have contributed their ideas.Manajemen

 b. Ghost Shopping Ghost Shopping is one way to gain an overview of customer satisfaction by employing a few people (ghost shopper) to become or act as a buyer or potential customers the company's products and the company's competitors. Then they give you a report on the strengths and weaknesses of competitors' products, and Performance Management based on the experience they purchase and consume these products.

In addition ghost shopper has a duty to observe how the company and its competitors to serve the demand of customers, answering customer questions and respond to any customer complaints. After that the company will evaluate all existing findings and immediately fix it. Usually this role is carried out ghost shopping manager unnoticed by his subordinates so that the manager can observe for themselves how karyawanya face of the consumer, so that he can evaluate the performance of the employee.

 c. Lost Customer Analysis In this method the company should call the customer who has ceased to be a buyer or supplier who have moved in order to understand why these customers are moving or stopped, and in order to take policy or further refinement. By doing so the company can find the right solution so that these customers to buy products from our company again.Peluang Bisnis

 d. Customer Satisfaction Survey Has been much research on customer satisfaction surveys conducted by penelitaian, either by mail, telephone or personal interview. Through a survey the company will determine the response and feedback directly from the customers and give good marks to the customer that the company is always memperhatian customers. It also provides advantages for companies to understand what is cool by pelanggannnya.

 2. Customer Satisfaction Measurement Techniques We've mentioned before that the survey method is the best method digunaan in customer satisfaction measurement. The technique can be used to measure the level of customer kepuaan, namely: Respondents or customers were questioned about the large sebarapa their expectations for a particular product and how great they feel after using the product.

Customers are asked to write down the problems encountered related to the company's offer and also asked untukmenuliskan perbaiaan-improvement against their advice. Respondents are expected to rank the elements of the offer according to the degree of interest elenmen and how well the company is working on each of these elements.

This measurement dsapat done directly with questions such as "how satisfied are you with the services PT Rocket Management on the following scale: very dissatisfied, dissatisfied, satisfied, very satisfied".cara membuat facebook Because of the current measurement technique is still ongoing satisfaction megalami developments, this mengakibatakan no aggreement on how to measure the level of customer satisfaction. Therefore, artifacts variety of measurement techniques good level of customer satisfaction from the simple to the very complex.

Just how the needs and accuracy that will be needed by companies to measure customer satisfaction. The measurement technique itself can use statistical methods including regression analysis, correlation, ANOVA, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, factorial analysis, and conjoint analysis. That was the article about the different ways of telling measure customer satisfaction daat hopefully helpful, see you in the next article, thanks.

2 Effective Strategies to Improve Customer Satisfaction

In general, the company implemented a business strategy using a combination between strategic offensive and defensive strategies. Offensive strategy itself is intended to obtain or acquire new customers. With this strategy the company hopes to mineningkatkan market share, sales and number of customers.kerja online While this defensive strategy used to reduce customer exit and beralaihnya customers to use other products.

This strategy aims to minimize customer turnover and maximize customer retention by protecting products and markets (customers) of perusahaa competitors. In penilitian that many do have a market share strategy hbungan very eret with customer satisfaction. Both can increase the profit of a company, but there are perbeddaan between them. Where the reach and increase their own market share was an offensive strategy.

Sdangkan to customer satisfaction and to build obstacle diversion merupaka defensive strategy. Here perbadaan both when presented in the table Aspect Market share Customer satisfaction Use Used on a market with low growth or have experienced saturation Used on a market whose growth rate is low or has been saturated types of strategies offensive defensive point of convergence Competition Customer Measuring success The market share relative to the competition Customer retention rate behavioral objectives The transfer of the buyer kesetian buyers As for the defensive strategies menjdi divided into two, namely the obstacles diversion (switching barriers) and customer satisfaction. Here is an explanation of the two sections:

 1. Transfer of Strategy Formation Obstacles In this staretegi rintangn companies should establish a diversion, so when customers will switch suppliers feel the loss, Mersa reluctant, or will spend a greater cost than if we were supplying. This diversion obstacles can include the search costs, transaction costs, pbelajar or understanding, pieces for regular customers, and cognitive efforts.kerja sampingan Can also be a costly exercise, in addition to employees, the capital cost for changes and additional costs required to complement the new perelatan. Kesemuannya be achieved if the company can make and menjalain harmonious relationship, intimate and mutual benefit and pelanggannnya anatara company.

 2. Customer Satisfaction Strategy This Strategy will make the company's competitors have to work hard and spend more in order to seize the company's customers suatau. Things to note that customer satisfaction is a strategy in the long term that requires commitment, both in terms of resources or DAA mausianya. The strategies that can dipaduan to achieve and enhance customer satisfaction. a. Steamy marketing strategy Relationship Marketing, yaiu strategy diamana exchange transaction between sellers and buyers of sustainable, does not end the account after a transaction or sale is completed.

Denagan other words, that occurs kemuitraan with consumers continuously resulting in loyalty or customer loyalty so menimbulakan repeat business. However, there were bullet diperhatiakan that impact customer satisfaction to loyalty and repeat purchases from customers that vary untu each company. Loyal customers do not necessarily feel satisfaction, but instead of satisfied customers tend to have loyalty to a product.

As one of the variants of this relationship is the Frequency Marketing, which seuatu weeks to maintain the business, increase the HSIL of the best customers, by way menjalain long-term relationship and interactive value added services.manajemen keuangan b. Cutomer service superior strategy, a strategy that offers the captors were better than the company's competitors. In this case memebutuhkan substantial funds, human resources capacity, and great effort in order to create superior waitress But often companies offer better srvice cutomer will give you a higher price on the product. However perusahaa will gain considerable benefits from a better servant, in the form of enterprise level rapid and substantial profit.

 c. Guarentees uncondinental strategy, in this stretagi memeberikan company is committed to customer satisfaction which will be realtionship dynamism nati improvement of product quality and company performance, or JSA. And this also can motivate employees to improve their performance levels than ever before. d. Strategy handling complaints efficiently. In this case penangana complaints against dissatisfied customers will be giving out chances of such customers become dissatisfied with the company's products and can bahakan menjdi customers who are loyal to the company.

The involvement of top management in the handle or respond to a complaint can also memberrikan positive impact.strategi pemasaran These customers are more pleased disebakan deal with orwang who have the authority or power to make decisions and pemacahan their problems. And also the customers feel that the company pay attention to complaints meraka and willing to improve its shortcomings. e. The strategy for improving the performance of the company, in this case includes a variety of efforts such as malakukan monitoring and measuring customer satisfaction continuously, memeberikan training of management and employees of the public relations and salesmanship. f. Applying Quality Function Deployment (QFD), is a practice for membuata a process as a response to customer needs.

What Is a Market?

The term of this market contains a lot of sense, to mean anyone meeting place for sellers and buyers, Aatu titawarkan services for sale, and transfer of ownership occurs. And some who interpret the market is sutau request made by a group of oran in the form of potential buyers of the goods or services.

Basically, the market is a place or places where there are potential buyers and sellers with products that are ready to be on offer to the buyer. However, the above notions are still very general nature, whereas when we define the market more specifically that the market consists of all potential customers who have a need for services or products that may be able or willing to malakukan exchange process in order to meet those needs.

With such a large market kecinya affected by how banayak of people with who have needs, have the resources in NESS others and are willing to offer these resources to be exchanged in order to meet their needs. As discussed in a previous article the market is divided into two kinds, namely end-consumer market and organizational market (business market). End consumer market made up of individuals and households tujaun of purchasing products or services used for personal needs or for direct consumption.

This consumer market behavior can be influenced by several factors, such as cultural, social, personal, and psychological. With these factors will be giving out instructions on how your can reach and serve customers better and effective. By doing so the company can benefit in the form of material and loyal customers or loyal to the company's products.contoh laporan keuangan Before the company plans a marketing progarm, perusahaann need mengethui who target consumers, and how their decision process.

By doing so the company can make products that match consumer target and can also save costs. Therefore sanagt market analysis is required to determine the role of each person in influencing decision-making, their buying criteria, and their influence upon purchase. This is very important because it has implications and designing products, define the communication messages and mangalokasikan budget for promotion (advertising).

 While the market for organisasioanal commonly called the producer market because buyers are producers who will rework the purchased product. This market consists of organizations, industrial users, traders, government, and non-profit institutions that tujaun purchase for processed again until the final product is ready to be resold, leased, was supplied to other parties, either for profit (profit) or to the welfare of its members. The characteristics that distinguish business markets invitation consumer market, such as:pengertian akuntansi

 Buyer (consumer) market organizational less than the consumer market, because buyers usually only organizational market companies or specific industries. Volume (number) purchase larger / more than the consumer market, because the product is processed and sold dbeli the longer it would require a large number. Anatar supplier relationships with customers more familiar and close Buyers (consumers) are more concentrated geographically, for example in the industrial city, shopping in puast crowd.

Demand is likely to be a derived demand (derived demand) Permintaanya inelastic (the demand is not influenced by changes in the price), because consumers (companies or industries) any price certainly right to buy such products to make the products that are sold again. His request volatile iron and on new factories and equipment The purchase is done professionally by the biological purchasing agent who has been trained, the company will send people here who are experienced and competent to lobby and bargain products to be purchased to meet the needs of the company.siklus akuntansi People that affect purchasing decisions

Papada business market tends more than the consumer market Any purchase made directly from the factory, and not infrequently sales are reciprocal exchanges. Let's say the car companies want to buy tires, then the purchase will be made directly in the plant and the number of purchase much that it can not be done at the dealer or tire shop.

What is the definition of Market or the Market?

The size of a market seen from the number of buyers that exist on the market. Potential buyers it has three principal characteristics, namely interest, income and of action. Pursuant to the three characteristics of the potential buyers of the then existing five-level definition of the market, namely: The market potential (potential market), this market can be defined sekumpualan people (consumers) who have certain tiers

mIAT against panawaran particular market. for example, all those who expressed a desire (minatanya) to buy a mobl. Market provided (available markat), can say as a set of consumers who have an interest, and income aksse against certain markets. in this market consumers could tau ability (purchasing power) to buy a car. In addition hamnbatan access also resolved, meaning that the car is available in the consumer area. Available market eligible (qualified available market),

which is a collection of buyers who have an interest, access, income and qualifications for a particular market deals. suppose the government to introduce legislation (malarang) car sales to consumers who are still under the age of 18 years. Thus, even if the consumer has of action, income (purchasing power), an interest but if not 18 know that he was not available pasarv eligible. The markets served (served market or target market) is the market that meruapak part of the market provided eligible (qualified available market) who want diasuki by a company. For example, when the car manufacturer decided to focus its marketing and distribution in Jakarta,

then Jarta into markets served. Market penetration (penetrated market), which is a set of consumers (buyers) who actually have purchased the product. So in this respect are included in market penetration adalh they (consumers) who have sunggguh really bought the car manufacturer. An understanding of the level of market definition ii very useful for companies for marketing planning. If a marketer (manufacturer) has not been or are not satisfied with the results of the sale today, it prosusen can perform certain actions or manner.

 The manufacturer may try to pull the percentage of buyers from markets served larger. Manufacturers can expand its marketing by opening a distribution on other areas or with lower prices. In addition DAPT manufacturers advertise their products agra expand the market potential and also attract consumers who previously was not interested.

3 Effective Strategies Market Coverage

In this strategy the group associated with the scope or cangkupan of a market that can be served. In stretegi market coverage, there are three strategies, including the single market strategy, multi-market strategy, and overall market strategy. And each every kind dtrategi will be described in the following sections.

 1.Strategi Single Market Companies engaged in a specific single market must have a variety of underlying reasons why they should move specific single market. let's say the company has its limitations and and resources, the potential market segments, da wanted to achieve a strong market position in segman served. As to be able to avoid direct competition from large companies, the smaller companies to concentrate more on specific market segments in order to be able to concentrate on customer service, usually small companies will choose a unique market niche. Selected markets usually can be neglected Yag market Segen tau [un segments underserved or less attractive (for large companies usually consider this segment too small).

 The main objective of this strategy is to seek segman market that is still overlooked or underserved, then the company will strive to meet the needs that exist in the segment. So the results to be achieved gods low cost and earnings (profits) yag great. If the strategy is successful, the companies engaged in this strategy will have its own reputation in these market segments, which he ran, but it also contains risks srategi well. This risk when changes in the form of the environment, especially in case of changing market tastes. In the event of changes in market tastes, it will result in a decrease in earnings of companies overall penhaslisan be shaken.

 Sealin it when the market segment is bringing in huge profits so many possibilities for the pesaig also kana go jump in that market segment. Given that many competitors have kana resulted in the company's profitability will decline. To use ni strategy while the requirements that must be met, including: Sagmen serve these markets with sngguh seriously, walaupu there are difficulties. Due to the firm's profit is only found in the segment. Avoid competing with companies that have mepan, because they already have many customers who remain and their products have been recognized by the market segment.

2.Strategi Multi-Market In contrast to the single psasar strategies only focus on serving the market segment alone, in this strategy the company will serve several market segments at once. As for the efforts made DAPT can be: Selling different products and market segments menjualanya in belainan anyway. Distribute the same product to a number of market segments berlainanan. In this strategy contains objectives to diversify and reduce the risk, so the company is not only hanging by one market segment only. With so if shocks or decrease to a segment of the market, then these do not affect the company.

The conditions for implementing the strategy in i is: Selecting and mempertimangkan carefully and with great care market segments it serves. Avoid confrontation with the companies that cater to every segment of the market. By using this strategy is expected the company will achieve an increase in sales and market share. These results will be easily achieved, if every product sold and market segments dilyania provide positive synergies. 3. Overall Market Strategy This strategy is done by meyani every spectrum of the market by selling products that teriferensiasi the market segments are different. Suppose a textile company would be to offering clothing for all market segments in the form of all age groups and both sexes.

 In this strategy the company has a goal to rival all existing products on the market. The companies that apply ii strategy that companies already established and dominant. In this strategy must consider several things, namely: Companies should do kombinsai disproportionately depending terhdap aspect of price, product, promotion, and strategies distrubusi on different segments. Hendakya top management has a strong commitment to seek to encompass and also serve all markets.

 Companies should have a very strong position keuagan. It is absolutely not possible because a company will serve all market segments without strong financial support. The results can diacapai with this strategy is that there is growth and market share expanded. This strategy is only a few who dare to implement it, including IBM (computer mainframe and personal computer), Cola-Cola (engaged in drinks with a variety of flavors, such as Cola-Cola, Sprite, Tab, Fresca, Fanta, Minute Maid, and Diet cuke) and General Motors (its products are Chevrolet, Pontiac, Oldsmobile, Buick, Cadillac, and small trucks).

What Functions and Objectives Marketing Strategy?

In the world of business strategy or tactics very multak needed to support the company's progress. These strategies can include many things, eg production strategies in order to minimize the cost or expense of the company. There is also a marketing strategy or marketing strategy. What is the marketing strategy? A simple understanding of marketing or marketing strategy is the attempt to create a direct and specific standards in public life.

The simple logic is, we establish new standards that did not previously exist or change the old standards with new standards that we offer. For example, Apple with their iPhone become standard for every premium class smartphone. Then what is the purpose of marketing strategies such goods or services? Obviously a great deal of interest to develop a marketing strategy for the future development of the company. Here are some of the role or function of marketing strategies for goods and services: Increases the motivation to think ahead. Thinking out of the box is very necessary to keep the rhythm, or the continuity of the company.

Every now and then do not continue to follow the rhythm of the market, but try to hit the market with something new. Coordination of marketing more effective and focused. Something that does not have a goal or strategy will certainly run with the mess. With the marketing strategy will create a coordination team to be much better and focused. Can formulate objectives / goals that the company will be achieved. With the help of this strategy, entrepreneurs can be helped to better purpose detailing what the company wants to achieve. Either long term or short term.

Supervision of marketing activities more effectively on standard performance. Of course, in terms of marketing need to be supervised each team member to improve the quality, or the quality. Those are the four functions of marketing staregi. Then what is the purpose dibentu the marketing strategy? Here is a destination marketing strategy of goods and services: Improving the quality of coordination in the marketing team Measure marketing results based on the applicable standard of achievement Provide a logical basis in decision-making Being able to improve the ability to adapt if there are changes in marketing. It had been a discussion about the purpose and function of marketing strategy. Hopefully enough can help you to improve the quality and performance of the company.

How to Market Commitment Strategy?

In the articles sebulumnya already discussed about the strategy to market the commitment we should know to know about the market and also the market level . If you forget it can be read again on the market and also the market level. To find out more about the breadth of market engagement strategies, then please read the following article !!! In a strategy that will be discussed are intimately associated with the level of involvement of a company in terms of finding a particular market. It is based on the company's view of all customers is not necessarily as important for a company.

In general, the company will only focus and commitment on certain markets only. In this case komitme already include financial resources, managerial or both. In a market commitment strategy consisting on three groups: strong-commitment strategy, average- commitment strategy, and also light-commitment strategy. For more jelasanya on the strategy will be discussed one by one.

 1. Strong-Commitment Strategy In the company which will implement this strategy required in order to carry out planning of operations in its target market is already optimally, namely by achieving economies of scale in a variety of things such as promotions, distribution, pemanufakturan, and so forth. If the company faced challenges from competitors, will the company should survive and also to be able to fight pasaing by aggressively using the marketing mix of different stretegi.

 This strategy is to enable companies to overcome the challenges of competitors aggressively to implement different strategies in each of these aspects, such as product, price, promotion, and distribution. The ultimate goal to be able to sustain the position with all owned by the company. The conditions conditions that must be owned by a company to be successful using this strategy, among others: Companies should be able to operate in an optimal way to realize economies of scale in terms of promotion, distribution, pemanufakturan, and others. Companies should not be complacent with the situation or position telag reached at this time, some say erana won more easily than on maintaining.

Has a very adequate resources. Peruasahaan must have the desire and ability to be able to take risks. The main results are expected in this strategy is the increasing growth, profit and market share. Average- Commitment Strategy If the interests of a company in the market does not change, then the company needs to give priority business in order to maintain the status quo. How often taken by companies, namely by providing everything (especially in terms of assimilation market) in accordance with the habits of customers, where the only change made when the environment is also changing.

 The conditions that must be met by companies that want to try this strategy is bahwasannya company should be sought so that its customers remain satisfied and pleased, so they are not easy to 'seduced' and also easily 'persuaded' utuk perpindah to competitor companies. The results to be achieved in this strategy is the company's profitability is adequate. Lightning Commitment Strategy There are also companies that already have a market that is only to be taken 'in passing' alone. This means that the company only has a small commitment to take care of that market.

The Company does not do a lot of attention and do not make an effort to be able to meet and satisfy the needs of all aspects of the market is needed. This occurs because the gains are stagnant market, limited potential, has been penetrated and filled by large companies or because of other factors. In this condition are the only company to maintain the status quo (without any increase in growth, profit and market share). Thank you for reading our article titled market engagement strategies, may be very useful to facilitate your business further.

What is Concept, Level, And Product Hierarchy?

Before we discuss more about the concept, and product hierarchy level, we must first understand what it is about concepts, levels and hierarchies? According to wikipedia concept is abstract, universal mental entity that refers to a category or class of an entity, event or relationship, the level is a tool to measure the height of the specified height limits.

 For example, the tank water level meter, useful for measuring the water level in the tank with the unit length (meters) or percentage, while the hierarchy is a collection compiled. The product itself is something that produced a manufacturer or company. Now that we know all that we know what the right concepts, level, and product hierarchy.

To find out more details about all of it then this article will discuss more in depth, for more details, please note the following explanation. Product is everything that is offered by the company in this case producers of note, purchased, requested or consumed as fulfilling the needs or desires the relevant market. In this case the product may include physical goods, services, people or individuals, places, organizations and ideas. So we can conclude bahwasannya product may be either tangible or intangible benefits-intangible that can satisfy the customer.

 When we speak in the concept of the product is all understanding subyetif of the top manufacturers of everything that can be offered as a form of business to achieve organizational goals through fulfilling the needs and desires of consumers, in accordance with the competence and capacity of the organization as well as the purchasing power of the market.

To menrencanakan offers or product pamasar (manufacturers) should be able to understand the five levels of the following products: The main products / core, which is the main benefit is actually needed and will also be consumed by the consumer (customer) of the order to each product. Generic product, a basic product that can fulfill the function of the product the most basic or minimal design so that a product can function.

Products expectations, a formal product offered by various manufacturers kelangkapan and condition normally expected and agreed to be purchased by the consumer. Complementary products, is pelangkap of a product that has been fitted or added benefits and services, so as to provide supplemental satisfaction of certain product and can be differentiated from competing products. Potential products, merupak all sorts of additions and changes that may be developed by a company to a product in the future. Each product must berkaita produ-hierarchical manner with other specific product. This hierarchy starts from products mendasr samapai with a specific product or item that can menuasakan those needs. In this hierarchy has seven levels, namely:

 Need family, the fundamental needs that make up the product family, for example, is a sense of security. Product family, are all first-class products capable of satisfying a basic need with effective levels were adequate, as a sample is a savings and income. class products, is a set of products that are in the product family which has a close relationship. The product line, a set of products in the class of closely related products (have the same function, are sold at the same consumer groups, dipasrkan the same distribution, as well as the price on the same scale).

 Types of products, items that are in a product line that has a specific form of the many kemungkinaan product form. Brand (brand), a name that may be associated with one atu more items that used to be able to identify the source / kerakter item concerned. Intem, is a special unit that would exist within a brand or product line that can differentiate by price, size, appearance, attributes, or other. Or what is often referred to stockkiping unit or product variants. Thank you for reading our article, may be useful to develop your business and hopefully after the reading of our arikel your business is more developed.

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